A century of mathematics in America. - download pdf or read online

By Peter Duren

ISBN-10: 0821801309

ISBN-13: 9780821801307

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The Academy of Sciences, which had been in such a precarious position in the last months of the Soviet Union—discredited in the minds of many scientists and political observers, and bereft of financial support as the federal budget disappeared—found a new lease on life, even though it continued with very little money. After the old Academy of Sciences of the USSR was combined with the new Russian Academy of Sciences in late 1991 and early 1992 the new “Russian Academy of Sciences” that emerged possessed all the research institutes of the old Soviet one (except, of course, for the institutes in the newly independent states), and Russia continued to have a research establishment that was different in organizational principles from the scientific establishments of most countries in Western Europe and North America and rather similar to that of the old Soviet Union.

The approach of the “Conception” document in its final form was very oldfashioned and, in many ways, a disappointment. 4) The Russian Academy of Sciences was given responsibility for fundamental science, Federal Research Centers (many of them the old industrial branch institutes) were given applied research, and the universities were still considered primarily educational institutions. Such a traditional assignment of roles has, in the past, hampered scientific development by separating research, development, and teaching in different institutions.

An abandonment of scientific careers began among researchers, a brain drain both internal and external. Meanwhile, the scientific literature and knowledge available to researchers in Russia diminished in quantity. Subscriptions to journals, especially foreign journals, lapsed, and attendance at international conferences dwindled. Deprived of subsidies, scientific presses dramatically cut their publication activities. The output of the publishing house Nauka, the press of the Russian Academy of Sciences, dropped by 1995 to about one-fifth of its previous level.

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A century of mathematics in America. by Peter Duren


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