By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough reports ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar studies the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse good points of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o indicates many strange typological good points, together with break up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our knowing of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan relations of languages in historic and areal standpoint.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
C. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. e’licham ‘bad ones’ < elel’i-sh i’ingicham ‘lazy ones’ < ingi-sh (usually i’ingcham) ingkicham ‘the ones who are like’ < ingki-sh Kawikawicham ‘Luiseños’ < Kawika-wi-sh ‘south-person-NPN ’ kawicham ‘rocks’ < kawi-sh (usually not pluralized) kawisicham ‘foxes’ < kawi-si-sh met’icham ‘many’ < met’i-sh naxashwicham ‘old bucks, old men’ < naxash-wi-ch qeqilyam ‘king snakes’ < qeqi-ly pi’icham ‘pipes’ < pi’i-sh wichicham ‘four, plural’ < wichiw wishcham ‘two, plural’ < wih The pattern seen in (77) is not absolutely consistent.
In other cases, certain contexts for a particular morpheme exhibit the more extreme variants of each vowel, relatively high for /e/ and relatively low for /a/. A good test environment is before -y, the consonantal variant of the object-case suffix, where there is a clear differentiation between ey [ëj] and ay [aj]. For instance, the subject case of ‘all’ is [pëÈta¿ëmë] but the object case is [pëÈta¿ëmaj]. The subject case of ‘our clothes’ is [tSëmÈti¿ivë] while the object case is [tSëmÈti¿ivëj].
Anat ‘red ant’, machiset ‘bat’, suqat ‘deer’, sewet ‘rattlesnake’ Examples with -l are (74) kawal ‘wood rat’, maawal ‘palm tree’, sivuyel ‘worm’, yu’al ‘a kind of large lizard’ In summary, the quality of the epenthetic vowels inserted between the root and non-possessed noun suffixes -ly, -l, -t, -sh is predictable according to the consonant of the suffix. An important site for the insertion of epenthetic vowels is before the plural suffix -m when this appears with non-possessed nouns. Two vowels appear before the plural suffix: i and a.
A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Jane H. Hill