By Jean Dieudonne
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Extra resources for Algebre Lineaire Et Geometric Elementaire
S. securities ﬁrms are not permitted to maintain reserves except for probable losses due to pending litigation (Joint Forum 2001, p. 30). Bank trading accounts are also subject to fair value accounting standards, but the banking book is subject to accrual accounting standards. Thus, the same ﬁnancial instrument may be valued in two diﬀerent ways depending on whether the bank has classiﬁed it as available for sale or in the trading book, or in the banking book as an investment asset to be held to maturity.
Gold is included in the FX risk calculation, rather than in commodities. The capital charge is then 8% for the overall position. Treatment of Options. Options are required to be marked to market at the end of the trading day using market prices and, importantly, implied volatilities for valuation. The BCBS laid out several alternative approaches to calculating market risk capital charges for options. The simpliﬁed approach, available to banks that use only purchased options, are functions of the market value of the option (money-ness) and the market value of the underlying security.
Banking regulation is distinctive, however, in its additional emphasis on capital regulation to safeguard against systemic risk. This concern leads banking regulators to insist on applying capital regulation on a consolidated basis. The diﬀerences in scope of capital regulation between securities regulators in the European Union and those in the United States reﬂect diﬀerences in history—the tradition of universal banking in continental Europe and the more segmented approach taken in the United States and the United Kingdom.
Algebre Lineaire Et Geometric Elementaire by Jean Dieudonne